ISSN 1226-8682

대한영어영문학회 전자저널

대한영어영문학회 전자저널


49권 3호 (2023년 8월)

Homonationalism and Heterosexual Racism in The Reluctant Fundamentalist and Falling Man

Jina Moon

Pages : 21-44





Moon, Jina. “Homonationalism and Heterosexual Racism in The Reluctant Fundamentalist and Falling Man.” Studies in English Language & Literature 49.3 (2023): 21-44. Tracing the representation of homonationalism and heterosexual racism in the two 9/11 novels, this essay argues that The Reluctant Fundamentalist and Falling Man illustrate and contribute to the post-9/11 American society’s adoption of plural sexuality in an effort to strengthen national and racial boundaries during a period of the national grief and international conflicts. This essay argues that Falling Man addresses the American condemnation of Muslims by describing their heterosexuality as licentious and deviant, queering their normative sexuality in the context of their religious and political tenets, while The Reluctant Fundamentalist critiques the orientalist and racist impulses superseding anti-homosocial feelings that in turn solidify a distinctive white nationalist narrative. This essay argues that Hamid and DeLillo challenge the perception of prototypical postcolonial or America-centered novels by superimposing sexual criminality onto the Other and by juxtaposing sexual racism with a Third World advocacy, utilizing The Reluctant Fundamentalist and Falling Man as a space for disruptive and ambivalent counter-narratives to 9/11 discourses. By examining The Reluctant Fundamentalist alongside Falling Man, this essay aims to expand our critical awareness of 9/11 discourse regarding shifting views on sexuality and to deepen our understanding of deterritorialized narratives. (Kumoh National Institute of Technology)


# 9/11 Novel # Homonationalism # Postcolonialism # The Reluctant Fundamentalist # Falling Man


  • Amis, Martin. “The Last Days of Muhammad Atta.” 3 Sep. 2006. Web. 10 June 2019.
  • Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso, 2016. Print.
  • Barthes, Roland. “The Death of an Author.” Image-Music-Text. Translated by Stephen Heath, Farrar, Straus and Giroux. New York: Fontana Press, 1978. 142-48. Print.
  • Braz, Albert. “9/11, 9/11: Chile and Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature (2015): 241-56. Print.
  • Butler, Judith. “Precarious Life, Vulnerability, and the Ethics of Cohabitation.” The Journal of Speculative Philosophy 26.2 (2012):134-51. Print.
  • Carbone, Mauro. “Falling Man: The Time of Trauma, the Time of (Certain) Images.” Research in Phenomenology 47 (2017): 190-203. Print.
  • Conte, Joseph. “Conclusion: Writing Amid the Ruins: 9/11 and Cosmopolis.” The Cambridge Companion to Don DeLillo. Ed. John Duvall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 179-92. Print.
  • ______. “Don DeLillo’s Falling Man and the Age of Terror.” Modern Fiction Studies 57.3 (2011): 559-83. Print.
  • Darda, Joseph. “Precarious World: Rethinking Global Fiction in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Mosaic 47.3 (2014): 107-22. Print.
  • DeLillo, Don. Falling Man. New York: Scribner, 2007. Print.
  • D’Emilio, John. “Capitalism and Gay Identity.” The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader. Ed. Henry Abelove et al. New York: Routledge, 1893. 467-76. Print.
  • DeRosa, Aaron. “Alterity and the Radical Other in Post-9/11 Fiction: DeLillo’s Falling Man and Walter’s The Zero.” Arizona Quarterly 69.3 (2013): 157-83. Print.
  • Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Vintage Books, 1980. Print.
  • Gasztold, Brygida. “Of Promises Delivered and Failed: Post-9/11 America through the Eyes of The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid.” Journal of American Studies 16 (2016): 17-28. Print.
  • Gay, David. “Confronting Myths of Difference: Fundamentalism, Religion and Globalization in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Religious Studies and Theology 30.1 (2011): 57-70. Print.
  • Gray, Richard. After the Fall: American Literature Since 9/11. New York: Wiley, 2011. Print.
  • Hamid, Mohsin. The Reluctant Fundamentalist. New York: A Mariner Book, 2008. Print.
  • Harack, Katrina. “Embbeded and Embodied Memories: Body, Space, and Time in Don DeLillo’s White Noise and Falling Man.” Contemporary Literature 54.2 (2013): 303-36. Print.
  • Hart, Matthew, and Jim Hansen. “Introduction: Contemporary Literature and the State.” Contemporary Literature 49.4 (2008): 491-513. Print.
  • Hartnett, Anna. “Moving through America: Race, Place and Resistance in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing 46 (2010): 336-48. Print.
  • hooks, bell. “The Oppositional Gaze: Black Female Spectators.” Black Looks: Race and Representation. New York: South End Press, 1992. 115-32. Print.
  • Ilott, Sarah. “Generic Frameworks and Active Readership in The Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing 50.5 (2014): 571-38. Print.
  • Jakobsen, Janet. “Sex + Freedom = Regulation.” Social Text 23 (Fall-Winter 2005): 285-308. Print.
  • Jameson, Frederic. The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act. New York: Cornell University Press, 1981. Print.
  • ______. “Third-World Literature in the Era of Multinational Capitalism.” Social Text 15 (1986): 65-88. Print.
  • Mamdani, Mahmood. “Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: A Political Perspective on Culture and Terrorism.” American Anthropologist 104.3 (2002): 766-75. Print.
  • McDonald, Jessica. “DeLillo’s Falling Man and the Trouble with Sympathy in Narratives of Terrorism.” Comparative Literature and Culture 18.3 (2016): 1-8. Print.
  • Mishra, Pankaj. “The End of Innocence.” The Guardian. 19 May 2007. Web. 10 June 2019.
  • Moon, Jina. “Queer Relations between American Dream and Postcolonial Resistance in The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007).” English Language and Literature 65.1 (2019): 145-65. Print.
  • Morey, Peter. “‘The Rules of the game have changed’: Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist and Post-9/11 Fiction.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing 42.2 (2011): 135-46. Print.
  • Mahmutovic, Adnan. “Global Citizenship in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Transnational Literature 8.2 (2016): 1-15. Print.
  • Mitchell, David, and Sharon Snyder. The Biopolitics of Disability: Neoliberalism, Ablenationalism, and Peripheral Embodiment. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2015. Print.
  • Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and Literary Imagination. New York: Vintage Books, 1992. Print.
  • ______. “Unspeakable Thinks Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American Literature.” The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. 7 October 1988. Web. 20 June 2020.
  • Munos, Delphine. “Possessed by Whiteness: Interracial Affiliation and Racial Melancholia in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing 48.4 (2012): 396-405. Print.
  • Petrovic, Paul. “Children, Terrorists, and Cultural Resistance in Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.” Critique 55 (2014): 597-609. Print.
  • Pirnajmuddin, Hossein, and Abbasali Borhan. “‘Writing Back’ to Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.” The Journal of International Social Research 4.18 (2011): 119-29. Print.
  • Polatinsky, Stefan, and Karen Scherzinger. “Dying without Death: Temporality, Writing, and Survival in Maurice Blanchot’s The Instant of My Death and Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.” Critique 54 (2013): 124-34. Print.
  • Puar, Jasbir. The Right To Maim: Debility, Capacity, Disability. Durham: Duke University Press, 2017. Print.
  • ______. Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007. Print.
  • Said. Edward. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978. Print.
  • Smith, Rachel Greenwald. “Organic Shrapnel: Affect and Aesthetics in September 11 Fiction.” American Literature 83.1 (2011): 153-74. Print.
  • Veggian, Henry. Understanding Don DiLillo. Columbia: Univeristy of South Carolina Press, 2014. Print.
  • Williamson, Craig. Roman Homosexuality. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
  • Žindžiuvienė, Ingrida. “Rambling Confessional Narrative in Mohsin Hamid’s Novel The Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science 158 (2014): 147-54. Print.
  • Žižek, Slavoj. The Sublime Object of Ideology. New York: Verso, 2008. Print.